Perhaps the biggest news of the last week was the meeting of the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC), the policymaking arm of the US Federal Reserve (Fed). As expected, the Fed raised interest rates. But what was far more interesting were the hints provided about the future. In this blog, I discuss my outlook for the Fed and highlight five issues to watch in October.
The Fed changed its statement
The fed funds rate dot plot — in which the FOMC participants share their policy prescription for future rate hikes — did not change. However, the Fed did alter its statement, deleting the sentence, “The stance of monetary policy remains accommodative, thereby supporting strong labor market conditions and a sustained return to 2% inflation.”
At the press conference, Fed Chair Jerome Powell asserted that this change in language does not mean that the policy is no longer accommodative. However, I believe that the reality is different, given that several FOMC participants have noted in previous minutes that the Fed is nearing the point where it can no longer call monetary policy accommodative. My takeaway is that this change suggests a higher hurdle for the Fed in order to raise rates in the future. I believe the Fed remains undecided about a rate hike in December, and that the next few months will ultimately dictate whether or not there is a fourth rate hike in 2018.
China shared its views on trade with the US
Also receiving significant attention was China’s release of a white paper last week that became notorious for its perspective that the US is “bullying” China. What I found more compelling were some of the statistics it shared on US-China trade that may not be well-known:
- US exports to China are growing faster than US exports globally.1 In other words, China is an important growth market for the US.
- In 2017, US exports to China included 57% of its total soybean exports, 25% of its total Boeing airplane exports, 20% of its total auto exports, 14% of its total integrated circuit exports and 17% of its total cotton exports.2
- In terms of services rather than goods, the US was actually running a significant trade surplus with China as of year-end 2017.2
- Exports to China lifted US gross domestic product growth 0.8% in 2015.3
- Trade with China has helped to significantly lower the US’ inflation level. Imports from China lowered US consumer price levels by 1%–1.5% as of Dec. 31, 2017.3
In other words, trade with China has provided some significant benefits to the US that could be lost or diminished if trade tensions continue.
Five things to watch in October
As we look ahead, there are five critical things for investors to watch:
1. RE-NAFTA: Renewal of NAFTA. The US and Canada were able to reach a preliminary deal on the revised North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) with minutes to spare before the deadline. It seems the US ultimately did make some important concessions, and in exchange Canada gave the US “more access to the dairy market.” This agreement is relatively similar to the original NAFTA — the most important addition is that it was updated for the 21st century, including intellectual property protections. In my view, the Trump administration had to make this deal work because it was unlikely Congress would approve a bilateral deal. In addition, it was important to have a trade “win” before the US mid-term elections in November.
Markets may react jubilantly for days after this announcement, but we need to remember that the stock market has typically had an asymmetric reaction to trade developments: positive developments have usually caused significant rallies, while negative developments have barely made a dent in stock prices. I believe this will change, as more investors contemplate the consequences of current trade actions. That’s especially so given that the Trump administration has now reached a deal with Canada, which enables it to focus even more of its attention and efforts on China. I expect the situation with China to deteriorate in coming weeks.
2. The trade war between the US and China. I expect it to heat up from here, and I expect we will begin to see more of an impact in the economic data. In September, the Caixin/Markit Purchasing Managers’ Index (PMI) for China fell to 50.0 — its lowest level since May 2017 — and is now in neutral after showing expansion for 15 months.4 This suggests Chinese manufacturers are already feeling some pain from the burgeoning trade dispute with the US. However, the PMI for the services sector rose,4 suggesting domestic demand is growing stronger, which makes sense given that China has been ramping up domestic spending to compensate for any damage done to its export business.
However, the US may also begin experiencing some damage from the trade conflict with China. Moody’s has already forecast that higher American tariffs on Chinese imports could offset some of the gains of the US tax reform legislation by reducing US gross domestic product (GDP) for 2019 by 0.25%.5 And Goldman Sachs warned in July that if trade tensions spread and a 10% tariff were imposed on all US imports to China, its earnings per share estimate for 2019 would drop 15%.6
Tariff tensions can also impact the US economy in small ways that add up. For example, Chinese tourism to the US during next week’s National Day holidays (“Golden Week”), while typically robust, is expected to fall significantly — there has been a 42% decrease in flight bookings from China to the US for Golden Week compared with last year’s holiday bookings.7 This is part of a larger recent trend of declining travel bookings from China to the US. In my view, pain inflicted on the US as a result of these trade disputes may become more noticeable moving forward, while damage done to China will remain quite visible.
3. Trade talks between the US and Japan. US President Donald Trump and Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe agreed last Wednesday to begin trade talks. Apparently, tariffs on Japanese automobiles will be off the table, at least for now. As I mentioned before, Prime Minister Abe has secured a third term, and I expect him to be strong and firm in trade negotiations with the US. Somewhat surprisingly, the Japan Tankan survey for the third quarter — a reading of business confidence — clocked in at a low 19 for the third quarter, well below expectations of 22, suggesting Japanese businesses may be worried about the potential for a trade dispute with the US.8 We will want to follow the situation closely.
4. Ongoing Brexit negotiations. There is still no deal, and one does not appear to be in sight. Brexit secretary Dominic Raab warned today, Oct. 1, that the European Union could force the country into a no-deal Brexit. And so attention is turning to what could happen to companies if this comes to pass next March. For example, Toyota’s car plant in Derbyshire announced it would close for an unknown period of time if Britain leaves the EU without a deal.9 We are likely to hear from more companies in the coming weeks as a no-deal Brexit becomes an increasingly likelier possibility.
5. Inflation. There is the potential for higher inflation as a result of tariffs in a variety of countries, but particularly in the US, as FOMC participants noted in the minutes of their August meeting. We will want to follow inflation metrics closely for signs of this, as it may force the Fed to raise rates in December — and raising rates to contain inflation caused by tariffs may not be a wise decision for the economy, in my view.
1 Source: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) “Key Statistics and Trends in International Trade 2017,” as of Dec. 31, 2017
2 Source: US Department of Commerce
3 Sources: US China Business Council and Oxford Research Institute
4 Source: Caixin
5 Source: Moody’s Investors Service, July 31, 2018
6 Source: Goldman Sachs, July 2018
7 Source: South China Morning Post
8 Source: Reuters, Sept. 30, 2018
9 Source: Financial Times, Sept. 29, 2018
Blog header image: Billion Photos/Shutterstock.com
The Federal Reserve’s “dot plot” is a chart that the central bank uses to illustrate its outlook for the path of interest rates.
Gross domestic product is a broad indicator of a region’s economic activity, measuring the monetary value of all the finished goods and services produced in that region over a specified period of time.
The Caixin/Markit Purchasing Managers’ Index (PMI) for China is considered an indicator of economic health for the Chinese manufacturing sector. It is based on survey responses from senior purchasing executives.
In a “no-deal” Brexit, the UK would leave the EU in March 2019 with no formal agreement outlining the terms of their relationship.
The opinions referenced above are those of Kristina Hooper as of Oct. 1, 2018. These comments should not be construed as recommendations, but as an illustration of broader themes. Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future results. They involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions; there can be no assurance that actual results will not differ materially from expectations.
Chief Global Market Strategist
Kristina Hooper is the Chief Global Market Strategist at Invesco. She has 21 years of investment industry experience.
Prior to joining Invesco, Ms. Hooper was the US investment strategist at Allianz Global Investors. Prior to Allianz, she held positions at PIMCO Funds, UBS (formerly PaineWebber) and MetLife. She has regularly been quoted in The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, Reuters and other financial news publications. She was featured on the cover of the January 2015 issue of Kiplinger’s magazine, and has appeared regularly on CNBC and Reuters TV.
Ms. Hooper earned a BA degree, cum laude, from Wellesley College; a J.D. from Pace University School of Law, where she was a Trustees’ Merit Scholar; an MBA in finance from New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, where she was a teaching fellow in macroeconomics and organizational behavior; and a master’s degree from the Cornell University School of Industrial and Labor Relations, where she focused on labor economics.
Ms. Hooper holds the Certified Financial Planner, Chartered Alternative Investment Analyst, Certified Investment Management Analyst and Chartered Financial Consultant designations. She serves on the board of trustees of the Foundation for Financial Planning, which is the pro bono arm of the financial planning industry, and Hour Children.
This does not constitute a recommendation of any investment strategy or product for a particular investor. Investors should consult a financial advisor/financial consultant before making any investment decisions. Invesco does not provide tax advice. The tax information contained herein is general and is not exhaustive by nature. Federal and state tax laws are complex and constantly changing. Investors should always consult their own legal or tax professional for information concerning their individual situation. The opinions expressed are those of the authors, are based on current market conditions and are subject to change without notice. These opinions may differ from those of other Invesco investment professionals.
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