For decades the United States has, directly and indirectly, subsidized global growth. For example, after World War II, the U.S. provided direct economic aid to Western Europe with the Marshall Plan, while also helping to rebuild Japan. And since then, we have provided never-ending direct aid to foreign countries, which has been a constant political football.
But in the economic scheme of things, the biggest subsidies of all have been indirect. For decades the U.S. has held trade tariffs below those of most foreign countries. And until recently, the U.S. has maintained a corporate tax rate significantly above the world average. At the same time, the U.S. hindered, through regulation, its production of energy.
According to the World Trade Organization, before the Trump tariffs were put in place, the U.S. had an average tariff of 3.4%. Canada had an average tariff of 4.0%, the EU 5.1%, Mexico 6.9%, China 9.8%, and South Korea 13.7% - all higher than the U.S., which means the playing field was tilted in favor of foreign countries. The U.S. was subsidizing them.
In 1993, America lifted its federal corporate tax rate to 35%, from 34%. When combined with state and local corporate taxes, the average rate was 38.9% and held there until the Trump tax cut in 2017. In 1993, the average worldwide corporate tax rate was roughly 33% (about 6 percentage points below the U.S.) and by 2017, the average had fallen to 23% (about 16 points below the U.S.). In other words, at the margin, businesses looking to invest globally had an incentive to invest outside of America.
The slowing of energy production in America became a direct subsidy to those who produce energy. Russia, Saudi Arabia and the Middle East, Venezuela and Mexico all benefited as the U.S. bought most of its crude oil from overseas.